We have posted previously on the topic of limitation periods as they pertain to civil litigation in Ontario, however, we did not discuss the specific instance of an action seeking declaratory, rather than consequential, relief. A recent Ontario decision was faced with the question of whether an application was outside the limitation period, and whether the relief the applicant sought was purely declaratory.
What is the Difference Between Declaratory and Consequential Relief?
Consequential relief is what an applicant is generally seeking when bringing an action in court. They seek an order that something will happen; payment of damages, an injunction being granted, or an award of support. They have brought the action in an effort to bring about a certain consequence.
Declaratory relief is when an applicant presents a legal question to the court seeking only a declaration with respect to the parties’ rights. There is no consequence sought beyond the court’s opinion on the matter.
A Recent Decision
Limitation periods, typically a two-year period in Ontario for most civil actions, do not apply to matters that seek a purely declaratory order. This is not controversial. A recent decision, Piekut v. Romoli, required the court to make a determination as to whether an action was statute-barred due to being outside the limitation period. The sole basis for this determination was whether the relief sought was consequential or solely declaratory.
The case involved two of the three daughters of a deceased man. Each of the man’s daughters had been appointed as Estate Trustees under their father’s Will. Each of the daughters was also a beneficiary under the Will, which had stated that the residue of the estate was to be divided equally among the deceased’s three daughters, one of whom was not a party to this action.
However, after the death of her father, the respondent daughter presented a codicil which she claimed her father had executed two years before his death. In this codicil, the father gifted two of his properties to the respondent daughter alone.
The plaintiff daughter and the third sister were unsure how to handle the codicil, which they felt was not valid. Due to the disagreement between the daughters, they did not attempt to probate the Will for several years after their father had passed. Eventually, the plaintiff brought an application seeking an order as the validity of the codicil so that she could carry out the administration of the estate. The respondent sought to dismiss her sister’s application as it had been brought outside the two-year limitation period.
The Court’s Findings
The key issue in the case became the determination of whether the relief sought was purely declaratory or if it involved a degree of consequential relief. The court noted that no action had ever been brought to prove the validity of the codicil one way or the other. Had the respondent brought an action to prove the validity of the codicil and the plaintiff had challenged it, the relief sought would have been consequential, with each party seeking a specific outcome from the court. In that case, the limitation period would have applied.
However, in the case at hand, the applicant did not seek that the court award the properties in question to anyone in particular. She simply sought a declaration as to the validity of the codicil. Once a declaration was made, she would move on to the administration of the estate in accordance with the court’s determination. While there was no question that consequences would flow from the declaration of the court, the plaintiff did not seek one consequence over another. This was the key distinction for the court.
The two-year limitation period will still apply to most civil actions, however, it is important to understand the difference between the types of relief that may be sought. Seeking a declaration rather than an outcome could be a way to resolve an ongoing matter than has progressed beyond the statutory limitation period.
At Baker & Company, our Toronto estates and litigation lawyers can help you establish an estate plan tailored to your needs, or bring or defend a challenge in court. We have extensive experience and expertise in providing you with estate planning advice and implementing your desired plan. We also rely on our broad base of experience and expertise to provide you with exceptional legal guidance in any litigation matter when necessary. Call us at 416-777-0100 or contact us online for a consultation.